CSci 120 - Lecture 18
© Morris Firebaugh
A. Introduce Chapter 9 - Producing Multimedia Titles on CD-ROM
B. Characterizing Compact Discs (CDs)
C. The Production Process for CD-ROMs
D. Review Constraints in 3D Design
E. Introduce Adobe Premier
II. Characterizing Compact Discs (CDs)
Compact Discs have become one of the most effective modes for delivering MM
- Large storage capacity [650 MB --> 16GB]
- Durability [made of rigid plastic]
- More difficult to copy [need expensive equipment to copy]
- Ease of distribution [light weight and small size makes for easy mailing]
- Non-volatillity [can't erase disc]
- Low cost [<$0.50/disk ]
- Pits and Lands --> "0s" and "1s"
- Follows the Red Book Standard
- Holds up to 75 minutes of 16-bit stereo sound [44.1 MHz]
- Played by most personal computers [Apple CD Audio Player]
- Poulenc's Gloria is playing while this lecture is being written
- CD-ROM High Sierra Standard
- A.K.A. ISO 9660
- Includes maximum of 8 levels of file hierarchy
- Includes DOS 8.3 file naming convention
- Standard for CD-ROM audio and video
- CD-I and CD-ROM XA
- Proprietary (Phillips) Standard
- Better synchronized sound and pictures
- Does not seem to be the wave of the future
- Photo CD
- Developed by Kodak in 1992
- Stores scanned photographs
- More than 100 per disc
- Mode of returning standard photography
- Multiple rolls may be stored using multisession discs
- Examples from Instructor's Photo CD:
- Compact disc - recordable
- A.K.A. CD-WO [write once]
- A.K.A. WORM [write once, read many]
- Cost less than 0.08¢/MB
- Great for
- Archiving printed material
- Providing in-house multimedia training titles
- Distributing information to small audiences
- Creating prototype CD titles for testing
- Creating a premastered image file for delivery to CD mastering company
- Originally meant "Digital Video Disc"
- More recently it has been defined as "Digital Versatile Disc"
DVD discs can be single sided like a standard CD, or double sided like a vinyl record. In addition to these
possibilities the DVD standards include the possibility of 2 playable layers of information per side. These 2
layers are played by refocusing the laser as necessary.
The table below shows the allowed formats of DVD discs and the resulting storage capacities.
Playing Time in
||100 to 140
||180 t o 250
||200 to 280
||360 to 500
The playing time, per playable layer, is dependent on the degree of compression used when encoding the video and audio content. It is also affected by the amount of space required for implementing multiple subtitles, multiple languages, multiple views etc.
- DVD disc construction
DVD discs are made by replicating 2 discs 0.6mm thick in the same way that compact discs are made. The data pits and lands are moulded into the optically clear plastic typically polycarbonate and coated with a highly reflective layer to create the playing surface. These 2 discs are then glued together with their information layers being either side of the bonded interface.The resultant disc is 1.2 mm thick which is the same nominal thickness as a standard CD.
- Can even have double-sided, double-layer:
- Demonstration - Singin' in the Rain
- For more information on DVD see
III. The Production Process for CD-ROMs
The steps in the production process include:
- Premastering , involving
- Organizing and naming files
- Optimizing the file structure
- Simulating the CD using a hard drive
- Mastering and Replication
- Use laser to etch a glass disk
- Glass disk is used as a mold to create the "stamper"
- Stamper then runs off thousands of CD-ROMs
- Labeling and Packaging
- Labeling done by silk-screening process
- Packaging varies
- Simple cardboard sleeve
- Clear plastic jewel box
- Some commercial packages include "air packaging"
- Production costs
- Depends on turn-around time requested
- Can be as low as $1-$2/disc
IV. Constraints in 3D Design
Swivel3D provides four basic constraint tools
- These are called "linking tools"
- Free link -> locks neither position nor attitude but provides slave/master hierarchy (unsymmetric)
- Lock link -> locks both position and attitude
- Ball-joint link->locks only position
- Unlink -> breaks link
- Note: Linking and locking preserve hierarchy
- There is a root object
- Then there are sons and daughters
- Example of Free link
- Note the object position parameters for the bottom drawer, after closing it.
- Example of Ball-link
- How would one build a "finger joint"?
1) Build a single joint out of reshaped cube, with pivot point about one radius from one end.
2) Next, duplicate it, perform a 180 degrees rotation, move to overlap, and link with ball joint.
3) Now apply limits of 0 degrees < pitch < 90 degrees and lock other two angles (Yaw and Roll)
- How could we make smoother joints?
1. Create extruded object
2. Copy and duplicate subsequent objects
3. Lock subsequent objects to original
4. Choose "Create Skin Object" under Object
V. Introduce Adobe Premiere