Introduction to Computers
© Morris Firebaugh
A. Introduce Chapter 17: The Cutting Edge - Artificial Intelligence
B. The Turing Test for AI
C. AI Issues
D. Programming in HyperLogo - Intermediate
II. The Artificial Intelligence Field
MWF --> AI research deals with the great, unsolved problems of computer science, generally with the goal of endowing computers with characteristics of human-like intelligence.
Author --> AI is the field of study that explores how computers can be used for tasks that require the human characteristics of intelligence, imagination, and intuition.
- AI research has two sides (complementary)
- Using models of the human brain to build more intelligent computers [engineering approach]
- Using the computer to build models of the human brain to test theories of cognition, learning, and memory [cognitive psychologist's approach]
- Subject matter of AI
Jonathan Schaeffer, Professor of Computer Science at the University of Alberta,
wrote Chinook which beat the world checkers champion, Dr. Marion Tinsley, in 1994.
- Problem Solving strategies
- Natural Languages
- Knowledge Representation
- Machine Learning
- Pattern Recognition
- Speech Understanding
- Machine Vision
- Expert Systems
- Neural Networks
- Artificial Life
III. AI Issues
- Turing's concept of computers as children, gobbling up libraries
- Alan Turing was a brilliant English mathematician
- Wrote 1937 paper on the "Universal Turing Machine"
- Helped build the Colossus computer to break the Enigma code
- Wrote the fundamental paper defining machine intelligence
- Committed suicide in 1954
- Predictions of computer chess championship [in 1957 Newell and Simon predicted a computer would be world's chess champion within 10 years - it took 40 for Deep Blue to beat Garry Kasparov ]
- Machine translation - the English saying "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." was translated into Russian and back again as "The vodka is good, but the meat is spoiled."
Computer Learning and Data Mining
- Given a knowledge base with
- FACT: Amy is Ken's wife
- RULE: If X is Y's wife, they Y is X's husband
- an inference engine can conclude the new fact
- Data mining involves scanning through databases (including the WWW) to infer new relationships
The Natural Language Factor
- Consider the various uses of the word hand
- Morgan decided to hand Sean a cookie.
- Morgan had a hand in the robbery.
- Morgan had a hand in the cookie jar.
- Morgan is an old hand at chess.
- Morgan gave Sean a hand with his luggage.
- Morgan asked Marcia for her hand in marriage.
- All hands on deck!
- Because of the ambiguity, multiple meanings, and context issue, machine translation has been slow to appear.
The Artificial Intelligence Debate
- The basic questions is: Can a computer think?
- The original (and still best) discussion was given by Alan Turing in the article "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" which appeared in Mind (1950)
- His proposal to answer the questions, Can machines think? was the Imitation Game [Turing Test]
IV. The Turing Test - Can Machines Think?
- The Turing Test [The Imitation Game] for machine intelligence
- Computer programmed to converse
- Can the interrogator tell the difference?
Turing himself says:
"I believe that in about fifty years' time it will be possible to program computers, with a storage capacity of about 109 to make them play the imitation game so well that an average interrogator will not have more than 70 percent chance of making the right identification after five minutes of questioning."
"Nevertheless, I believe that at the end of the century the use of words and general educated opinion will have altered so much that one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. I believe further that no useful purpose is served by concealing these beliefs."
The Turing Test is rugged, operational, and brilliant
- Avoids philosophical quibbles
- Specifies how machine intelligence can be verified
- Turing Test a regular event at Boston's Computer Museum
So far, most entrants to the BCM's Turing Test have been based on Weisenbaum's ELIZA. Consider the following conversation:
HELLO. MY NAME IS ELIZA. WHAT'S YOURS?
ALRIGHT, MORRIS, WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE TO TALK ABOUT TODAY?
how about school work?
WHAT IS IT THAT YOU REALLY WANT TO KNOW, MORRIS?
How am I doing in my courses?
DO YOU THINK I AM DOING IN YOUR COURSES NOWAY?
no, I don't
DON'T YOU REALLY?
PLEASE GO ON.
I'm afraid I'm flunking Intro to Computers
DO COMPUTERS WORRY YOU, MORRIS?
What do you think?
- Can computers think?
- How can you prove it (or disprove it)?
- Is there a better test for AI?
V. Programming in HyperLOGO - Intermediate
- Recall the three essential programming structures are
1. Sequence (stepping)
2. Iteration (looping)
3. Decision (branching)
- The concept of variables, assignment, and I/O
- All high-level languages allow you to assign values to variables
- A variable is the name of a storage location
- Its value is the quantity stored at that location
- In LOGO, the naming convention is
- The name is prefixed by a "
- Its value is prefixed by :
- So, for instance, if the variable is called NUM
- Its name is "NUM
- Its value is :NUM
- Assignment is done by two different methods
- Direct assignment, using the MAKE command
MAKE "NUM 15
- Input using the MAKE command
MAKE "NUM READLIST
- Additional input assignment functions include
MAKE "VAR READCHAR
MAKE "VAR READWORD
- LOGO Example #1: Program to input and add two numbers
print (sentence [Please input 2 numbers to be added.])
make "num1 readnumber
make "num2 readnumber
make "total :num1 + :num2
print (sentence :num1 [+] :num2 [=] :total)
OUTPUT FIRST READLIST
VI. Laboratory Assignment # 14